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Wednesday, 23 April 2014

PREPARATION OF 50% KOH


PREPARATION OF 50% KOH

50% KOH contains 50%w/w potassium hydroxide and for 40g of the compound is containd in every 100ml of its solution.

Potassium hydroxide are  made as solid deliquescence  pellets.

Deliquescence substances are chemical compound that tend to absorb so much water from the atmosphere that they dissolve in it to form an aqueous solution of the compound.

50%w/w KOH contains 8.93M KOH

10M KOH= 10NKOH

From

Molar Mass of each element K=39, O=16, H=1

Molar Mass of NaOH= 39+16+1

                                 =56g

Number of Mole=  Mass

                                    Molar mass

From

50% KOH

The mass of KOH in 100ml of it solution is 50g

Thus

Number of Mole of KOH =       Mass

                                                            Molar mass

Number of Mole of NaOH =       50
                                                            56

                                                   =  0.893mole

In 1000ml or 1liter of the KOH

Molar Concentration =              Mass                 X  1000

                                                      Molar mass          Volume

or

Molar Concentration =              Number of mole                    X  1000

                                                                                                             Volume

Molar Concentration =              50                      X  1000

                                                       56                           100

Molar Concentration =                 8.93M

Or

Since the number of mole of 50% KOH in 100ml of the solution  is 1mole

Therefore

Molar Concentration =              0.893                X  1000

                                                                                         100

Molar Concentration =              8.93M

Preparation Procedure

1.     Make available an accurate analytical weighing balance, clean dry 500ml beaker, distilled/deionized water, stirrer, 1000ml Volumetric flask and Spatula

2.     Place the beaker on the balance and tare/zero the reading

3.     With the aid of the spatula weigh 400g of the KOH pellet into the clean beaker

4.     Add about 400ml of distilled/deionized water and stir to dissolve the pellets in a cold water bath (Note: the reaction is exothermic because heat will be given up thereby causing increase in the temperature of the beaker, ensure you stir gently in the cold water bath)

5.     When all the pellets have dissolved, transfer the solution into the 1000ml volumetric flask. Allow to cool

6.     Add distilled/deionized water to the mark, shake and allow to cool

7.     On cooling decrease in volume of the solution will be noticed, add distilled/deionized water again to the mark and shake.

Note:

1.     KOH has high affinity for water thus this is why there is decrease in the solution after making up to the mark

2.     Due to the high affinity for moisture in the atmosphere the weighing should be done in vacuum or less aerated place at a fast speed.

3.     Deionized water is best for the preparation of this solution because of it lack of ions, which when present can interfere with the KOH in the solution.

 

 

Monday, 21 April 2014

PREPARATION OF 40% KOH


PREPARATION OF 40% KOH

40% KOH contains 40%w/w potassium hydroxide and for 40g of the compound is containd in every 100ml of its solution.

potassium hydroxide are  made as solid deliquescence  pellets.

Deliquescence substances are chemical compound that tend to absorb so much water from the atmosphere that they dissolve in it to form an aqueous solution of the compound.

40%w/w KOH contains 7.14M KOH

10M KOH= 10N KOH

From

Molar Mass of each element K=39, O=16, H=1

Molar Mass of NaOH= 39+16+1

                                 =56g

Number of Mole=     Mass

                                    Molar mass

From

40% KOH

The mass of KOH in 100ml of it solution is 40g

Thus

Number of Mole of KOH =       Mass
                                                      Molar mass

Number of Mole of NaOH =       40
                                                        56

                                                   =  0.714mole

In 1000ml or 1liter of the KOH

Molar Concentration =              Mass                 X  1000

                                                           Molar mass      Volume

or

Molar Concentration =              Number of mole                    X  1000

                                                                                                             Volume

Molar Concentration =              40                      X  1000
                                                       56                         100

Molar Concentration =                 7.14M

Or

Since the number of mole of 40% KOH in 100ml of the solution  is 1mole

Therefore

Molar Concentration =              0.714                X  1000

                                                                                         100

Molar Concentration =              7.14M

Preparation Procedure

1.     Make available an accurate analytical weighing balance, clean dry 500ml beaker, distilled/deionized water, stirrer, 1000ml Volumetric flask and Spatula

2.     Place the beaker on the balance and tare/zero the reading

3.     With the aid of the spatula weigh 400g of the KOH pellet into the clean beaker

4.     Add about 400ml of distilled/deionized water and stir to dissolve the pellets in a cold water bath (Note: the reaction is exothermic because heat will be given up thereby causing increase in the temperature of the beaker, ensure you stir gently in the cold water bath)

5.     When all the pellets have dissolved, transfer the solution into the 1000ml volumetric flask. Allow to cool

6.     Add distilled/deionized water to the mark, shake and allow to cool

7.     On cooling decrease in volume of the solution will be noticed, add distilled/deionized water again to the mark and shake.

Note:

1.     KOH has high affinity for water thus this is why there is decrease in the solution after making up to the mark

2.     Due to the high affinity for moisture in the atmosphere the weighing should be done in vacuum or less aerated place at a fast speed.

3.     Deionized water is best for the preparation of this solution because of it lack of ions, which when present can interfere with the KOH in the solution.

 

Thursday, 17 April 2014

PREPARATION OF 50% NaOH


PREPARATION OF 50% NaOH

50% NaOH contains 50%w/w sodium hydroxide and for 50g of the compound is containd in every 100ml of its solution.

Sodium hydroxide are made as solid deliquescence  pellets.

Deliquescence substances are chemical compound that tend to absorb so much water from the atmosphere that they dissolve in it to form an aqueous solution of the compound.


50%w/w NaOH contains 12.5M NaOH

From

Molar Mass of each element Na=23, O=16, H=1

Molar Mass of NaOH= 23+16+1

                                      =40g

Number of Mole=       Mass

                                    Molar mass

From

50% NaOH

The mass of NaOH in 100ml of it solution is 50g

Thus

Number of Mole of NaOH =       Mass

                                                        Molar mass

Number of Mole of NaOH =       50

                                                         40

                                          =  1.25moles

In 1000ml or 1liter of the NaOH

Molar Concentration =              Mass                 X  1000

                                                       Molar mass         Volume

or

Molar Concentration =              Number of mole                    X  1000

                                                                                                             Volume

Molar Concentration =              50                      X  1000

                                                      40                           100

Molar Concentration =                 12.5M

Or

Since the number of mole of 50% NaOH in 100ml of the solution  is 1mole

Therefore

Molar Concentration =              1.25                  X  1000

                                                                                         100

Molar Concentration =              12.5M

Preparation Procedure

1.     Make available an accurate analytical weighing balance, clean dry 500ml beaker, distilled/deionized water, stirrer, 1000ml Volumetric flask and Spatula

2.     Place the beaker on the balance and tare/zero the reading

3.     With the aid of the spatula weigh 500g of the NaOH pellet into the clean beaker

4.     Add about 400ml of distilled/deionized water and stir to dissolve the pellets (Note: the reaction is exothermic because heat will be given up thereby causing increase in the temperature of the beaker, ensure you stir gently)

5.     When all the pellets have dissolved, transfer the solution into the 1000ml volumetric flask. Allow to cool

6.     Add distilled/deionized water to the mark, shake and allow to cool

7.     On cooling decrease in volume of the solution will be noticed, add distilled/deionized water again to the mark and shake.

Note:

1.     NaOH has high affinity for water thus this is why there is decrease in the solution after making up to the mark

2.     Due to the high affinity for moisture in the atmosphere the weighing should be done in vacuum or less aerated place at a fast speed.

3.     Deionized water is best for the preparation of this solution because of it lack of ions, which when present can interfere with the NaOH in the solution.

 

 

Tuesday, 15 April 2014

PREPARATION OF 40% NaOH


PREPARATION OF 40% NaOH

40% NaOH contains 40%w/w sodium hydroxide and for 40g of the compound is contained in every 100ml of its solution.

Sodium hydroxide are  made as solid deliquescence  pellets.

Deliquescence substances are chemical compound that tend to absorb so much water from the atmosphere that they dissolve in it to form an aqueous solution of the compound.

40%w/w NaOH contains 10M NaOH

From

Molar Mass of each element Na=23, O=16, H=1

Molar Mass of NaOH= 23+16+1

                                     =40g

Number of Mole=  Mass

                                  Molar mass

From

40% NaOH

The mass of NaOH in 100ml of it solution is 40g

Thus

Number of Mole of NaOH =       Mass

                                                        Molar mass

Number of Mole of NaOH =       40

                                                        40

                                                   =  1mole

In 1000ml or 1liter of the NaOH

Molar Concentration =              Mass                 X  1000

                                                       Molar mass         Volume

or

Molar Concentration =              Number of mole                    X  1000

                                                                                                            Volume

Molar Concentration =              40                      X  1000

                                                       40                          100

Molar Concentration =           10M

Or

Since the number of mole of 40% NaOH in 100ml of the solution  is 1mole

Therefore

Molar Concentration =              1                        X  1000

                                                                                         100

Molar Concentration =              10M

Preparation Procedure

1.     Make available an accurate analytical weighing balance, clean dry 500ml beaker, distilled/deionized water, stirrer, 1000ml Volumetric flask and Spatula

2.     Place the beaker on the balance and tare/zero the reading

3.     With the aid of the spatula weigh 400g of the NaOH pellet into the clean beaker

4.     Add about 400ml of distilled/deionized water and stir to dissolve the pellets (Note: the reaction is exothermic because heat will be given up thereby causing increase in the temperature of the beaker, ensure you stir gently)

5.     When all the pellets have dissolved, transfer the solution into the 1000ml volumetric flask. Allow to cool

6.     Add distilled/deionized water to the mark, shake and allow to cool

7.     On cooling decrease in volume of the solution will be noticed, add distilled/deionized water again to the mark and shake.

Note:

1.     NaOH has high affinity for water thus this is why there is decrease in the solution after making up to the mark

2.     Due to the high affinity for moisture in the atmosphere the weighing should be done in vacuum or less aerated place at a fast speed.

3.     Deionized water is best for the preparation of this solution because of it lack of ions, which when present can interfere with the NaOH in the solution.

 

Sunday, 13 April 2014

Cancer


Cancer is a fatal disease caused mainly by genetic or environmental factors that mutate genes encoding critical cell-regulatory proteins. The resultant aberrant cell behaviour leads to expansive masses of abnormal cells that destroy surrounding normal tissue and can spread to vital organs resulting in disseminated disease, commonly a harbinger of imminent patient death (Malcolm, 2001).

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. About one-half of all men and one-third of all women in the US will develop cancer during their lifetimes. Today, millions of people are living with cancer or have had cancer (America Cancer Society, 2012).

Over the next 25 years there will be a dramatic increase in the number of people developing cancer. Globally 10 million new cancer patients are diagnosed each year and this will be 20 million by the year 2020. Cancer is now the public most feared disease. Billions of dollars are spent annually on cancer research by the drug industry, cancer charities and governments, but a cure for cancer appear elusive, and yet we are in the midst of a revolution in our ability to image part of the body, painlessly and fine details (Sikora et al., 1999).

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by unregulated division and spread of cells. The cancerous cells may occur in liquids, as in leukemia. Most, however, occur in solid tumors that originally appear in various tissues in various parts of the body. By their original locations they are classified into various types of cancer, such as lung, colon, breast, prostate cancer, etc. Localized tumors can be removed by surgery or irradiation with high survival rates. As cancer progresses, however, it metastasizes – invading the surrounding tissues, entering the blood stream, spreading and establishing colonies in distant parts of the body. Only a third of patients with metastasized cancer survive more than five years. Invasive distensions spreading crab-like from a tumor in the breast were described by Hippocrates. From the crab, karkinos in Greek and cancer in Latin, came the name of the disease and the name of its inducing agents, carcinogens (Dervan, 1999).

The causes of serious ill-health in the world are changing. Infection as a major cause is giving way to non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 1996 there were 10 million new cancer cases worldwide and six million deaths attributed to cancer. In 2020 there are predicted to be 20 million new cases and 12 million deaths. Part of the reason for this is that life expectancy is steadily rising and most cancers are more common in an ageing population. More significantly, a globalization of unhealthy lifestyles, particularly cigarette smoking and the adoption of many features of the modern Western diet (high fat, low fibre content) will increase cancer incidence (Malcolm, 2001).

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